Each Canadian province and the three territories have their own Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs), in order to serve their individual immigration needs. Many of them also run their own categories under the Canada Express Entry System. As a result, the provinces have an increasing role in the selection of economic immigrants.
Applying for admission to Canada as a permanent resident under a provincial program follows a two-stage process. Applicants who receive a PNP nomination can then apply for permanent residence.
Under the federal 2017 immigration numbers plan, 51,000 newcomers will be welcomed through provincial programs. The target for 2018 is 55,000, rising to nearly 68,000 by 2020.
However, many of the large provincial programs face problems with processing delays. Canada attracts considerable interest from potential new immigrants, far surpassing the processing capacity of immigration programs.
The Canada Express Entry system has successfully tackled processing delays, while many of the provinces are now choosing to open and close their popular streams periodically throughout the year to avoid large backlogs.
1. British Columbia
6. New Brunswick
7. Nova Scotia
8. Newfoundland & Labrador
9. Northwest Territories
10. Prince Edward Island
Under the provincial programs, candidates are nominated by a prospective employer and, once approved by the province, are subject to an expedited process. In the initial stages, applicants can receive temporary, renewable work permits to enter Canada while they are being processed for permanent residence.
The skilled worker-based provincial programs, with the exception of Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, generally require an employer to sponsor the applicant for admission to Canada. Without a government-approved employer sponsorship, the application will either not be approved, or will be routinely passed over in favor of applications with an employer sponsored approval.
Sponsoring employers under most provincial programs must demonstrate sufficient efforts to hire local Canadians and offer competitive terms and conditions of employment that are relevant to a particular occupation. Between provinces, variations exist in the terms and conditions of employment to qualify to sponsor a foreign worker.
To qualify as a sponsored employee, the position being filled must generally conform to a National Occupation Classification skill level of O, A, B; or alternatively, must meet the terms of a particular pilot project designed for a specific critical skill shortage identified by the province.